The ade4 Package: Implementing the Duality Diagram for Ecologists

Stéphane Dray, Anne-Béatrice Dufour

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Multivariate analyses are well known and widely used to identify and understand structures of ecological communities. The ade4 package for the R statistical environment proposes a great number of multivariate methods. Its implementation follows the tradition of the French school of "Analyse des Donnees" and is based on the use of the duality diagram. We present the theory of the duality diagram and discuss its implementation in ade4. Classes and main functions are presented. An example is given to illustrate the ade4 philosophy.

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