NParCov3: A SAS/IML Macro for Nonparametric Randomization-Based Analysis of Covariance

Richard C. Zink, Gary G. Koch

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Analysis of covariance serves two important purposes in a randomized clinical trial. First, there is a reduction of variance for the treatment effect which provides more powerful statistical tests and more precise confidence intervals. Second, it provides estimates of the treatment effect which are adjusted for random imbalances of covariates between the treatment groups. The nonparametric analysis of covariance method of Koch, Tangen, Jung, and Amara (1998) defines a very general methodology using weighted least-squares to generate covariate-adjusted treatment effects with minimal assumptions. This methodology is general in its applicability to a variety of outcomes, whether continuous, binary, ordinal, incidence density or time-to-event. Further, its use has been illustrated in many clinical trial settings, such as multi-center, dose-response and non-inferiority trials.

NParCov3 is a SAS/IML macro written to conduct the nonparametric randomization-based covariance analyses of Koch et al. (1998). The software can analyze a variety of outcomes and can account for stratification. Data from multiple clinical trials will be used for illustration.

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