Published by the Foundation for Open Access Statistics Editors-in-chief: Bettina Grün, Torsten Hothorn, Rebecca Killick, Edzer Pebesma, Achim Zeileis    ISSN 1548-7660; CODEN JSSOBK
Authors: Hadley Wickham
Title: Tidy Data
Abstract: A huge amount of effort is spent cleaning data to get it ready for analysis, but there has been little research on how to make data cleaning as easy and effective as possible. This paper tackles a small, but important, component of data cleaning: data tidying. Tidy datasets are easy to manipulate, model and visualize, and have a specific structure: each variable is a column, each observation is a row, and each type of observational unit is a table. This framework makes it easy to tidy messy datasets because only a small set of tools are needed to deal with a wide range of un-tidy datasets. This structure also makes it easier to develop tidy tools for data analysis, tools that both input and output tidy datasets. The advantages of a consistent data structure and matching tools are demonstrated with a case study free from mundane data manipulation chores.

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DOI: 10.18637/jss.v059.i10

This work is licensed under the licenses
Paper: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License
Code: GNU General Public License (at least one of version 2 or version 3) or a GPL-compatible license.