Looking Back at the Gifi System of Nonlinear Multivariate Analysis

Peter G. M. van der Heijden, Stef van Buuren

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Gifi was the nom de plume for a group of researchers led by Jan de Leeuw at the University of Leiden. Between 1970 and 1990 the group produced a stream of theoretical papers and computer programs in the area of nonlinear multivariate analysis that were very innovative. In an informal way this paper discusses the so-called Gifi system of nonlinear multivariate analysis, that entails homogeneity analysis (which is closely related to multiple correspondence analysis) and generalizations. The history is discussed, giving attention to the scientific philosophy of this group, and links to machine learning are indicated.

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