Main Article Content
Simulations are a practical and reliable approach to power calculations, especially for multi-level mixed effects models where the analytic solutions can be very complex. In addition, power calculations are model-specific and multi-level mixed effects models are defined by a plethora of parameters. In other words, model variations in this context are numerous and so are the tailored algebraic calculations. This article describes ipdpower in Stata, a new simulations-based command that calculates power for mixed effects two-level data structures. Although the command was developed having individual patient data meta-analyses and primary care databases analyses in mind, where patients are nested within studies and general practices respectively, the methods apply to any two-level structure.