Informed Bayesian Inference for the A/B Test

Quentin F. Gronau, Akash Raj K. N., Eric-Jan Wagenmakers

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Booming in business and a staple analysis in medical trials, the A/B test assesses the effect of an intervention or treatment by comparing its success rate with that of a control condition. Across many practical applications, it is desirable that (1) evidence can be obtained in favor of the null hypothesis that the treatment is ineffective; (2) evidence can be monitored as the data accumulate; (3) expert prior knowledge can be taken into account. Most existing approaches do not fulfill these desiderata. Here we describe a Bayesian A/B procedure based on Kass and Vaidyanathan (1992) that allows one to monitor the evidence for the hypotheses that the treatment has either a positive effect, a negative effect, or, crucially, no effect. Furthermore, this approach enables one to incorporate expert knowledge about the relative prior plausibility of the rival hypotheses and about the expected size of the effect, given that it is non-zero. To facilitate the wider adoption of this Bayesian procedure we developed the abtest package in R. We illustrate the package options and the associated statistical results with a fictitious business example and a real data medical example.

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